18 jan. É uma enfermidade infecto-contagiosa, cosmopolita e altamente fatal que atinge mamíferos domésticos e selvagens, o homem e em. Portuguese, Carbúnculo NE, Infecção por Bacillus anthracis, Carbúnculo Antraz Inalacional, Carbúnculo Hemático, Carbúnculo Meníngeo, Doença dos. Bacillus anthracis; doenças infecciosas; Anthrax; infectious disease; Carbúnculo hemático. doenças de bovinos; disease of cattle. From the journal. Pesquisa.
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Anthrax in cattle in southern Brazil: Sallis II ; Mauro P. Priebe IV ; Milton B. Ten outbreaks of anthrax occurred in cattle from to in southern Brazil, in 5 municipalities on the border with Uruguay, a country where the disease is frequent. The 10 outbreaks represented 0. The disease affected young and adult cattle mainly during summer.
Only one farmer reported that sheep and horses were also affected.
Anthrax in cattle in southern Brazil:
Clinically the peracute form was more frequent, but in some outbreaks the acute form with a clinical manifestation period of hours was also observed. The source of infection was not established; but the reduced rainfall, associated with low, flat, flooded lands used for agriculture followed by animal grazing after harvest was probably related to the disease occurrence.
Annual vaccination is an efficient way to prevent the disease. Anthrax, Bacillus anthracis, infectious disease, disease of cattle.
Anthrax is a highly fatal infectious disease caused by Bacillus anthracisa Gram- positive, aerobic, encapsulated bacillus which produces spores that in favorable conditions can persist in the environment for decades before infecting the host.
More recently considerable importance has been given to B. It was hemqtico a threat to public health in USA, afterwhen the bacteria were liberated intentionally in that country Bales et al.
Anthrax is endemic all over the world, but the possibility of the bacteria to grow and multiply as saprophytes in the environment has not been established definitively. Apparently, it is present in the normal soil flora in low numbers, but under ideal conditions, in soil rich in nitrogen and organic matter, with pH above 6 and a temperature higher than It has been recognized that spores of B.
In Brazil, anthrax was reported for the first time in the forties, but there were anecdotal reports of the disease before that Langenegger The disease was reported in Rio Grande do Sul affecting cattle, sheep, horses, goats and pigs SaraivaSantos et al. The disease occurs in all South American countries and Mexico. More recently, from January to November19 outbreaks of anthrax occurred in the Departments of Treinta e Tres, Rocha, Cerro Largo, and Durazno, being 18 in cattle, and one in horses with the death of 3 horses out of Most outbreaks occurred between January and March; in a risk population of 4, cattle, morbidity rate was 4.
In Argentina, between andfrom samples with suspicion of anthrax, 25 were positive. Those outbreaks started in and were markedly seasonal; 18 of them occurred from January to March Rojas et al. Epidemiologic conditions for the occurrence of anthrax have been studied in countries where the disease is endemic. In Australia the disease was observed on 83 farms in It was suggested that the outbreaks were associated with a long dry spell with high humidity and higher than normal soil temper-atures, after a proceeding wet winter in a poorly drained area where operations were performed to renovate irrigated pasture, water channels and drainage systems.
In Canada, outbreaks occurred at the end of summer and start of autumn, after a long period of unusually warm and dry spring weather.
The high temperatures may have facilitated the multiplication of B. Anthrax has been controlled in endemic areas by systematic vaccination of the most vulnerable species, mainly cattle, along with restrictions in animal transportation Turner et al.
The aim of this paper is to report outbreaks of anthrax, from January to Marchin southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. All diagnoses were made on specimens sent by veterinarians or collected by the author s in visits to the affected farms. Data of the municipality and season of occurrence of the disease, age and breed of affected animals, and the use of anthrax vaccines on the farms were recorded.
Outbreaks were numbered from 1 to 10 in chronologic order.
Blood was obtained from an amputated ear or metatarsal bone, or collected with a syringe from subcutaneous exudates, jugular vein, or bloody discharges from the natural orifices. These specimens or the bacteria isolated were also inoculated into guinea pigs or mice subcutaneously or in mice by scarification of the tail.
Ten outbreaks of anthrax were confirmed from January to Marchrepresenting 0. Epidemiological data of hemarico outbreaks are presented in Table 1. In Table 2the meteorological data from the area where outbreaks occurred are caebunculo.
All outbreaks occurred in hematiico in the southeastern and southern region of the state, in municipalities on the border with Uruguay Fig. Five outbreaks occurred between January and March, three outbreaks between May and July, and two outbreaks in Hematio.
Outbreaks 2, 3, 6, 8 and 9 affected crossbreed beef cattle, in Outbreaks 4 and 5 the records had no information about breed, Outbreak 7 affected Red Angus and Holstein cattle, and Nematico 1 and 10 affected Hereford cattle.
Morbidity rate varied between 0. Farmers informed that two cattle in Outbreak 4 and one in Outbreak 8 survived after treatment with antibiotics. Outbreaks 1, 4, 5, 6 and 9 affected years old cattle, but in two of those outbreaks 1 and 5animals 4 years old or older were also affected.
In Outbreak 7 cattle of different ages were affected. In Outbreaks 2, 3 and 8 the disease affected 4-year-old or older cattle. The veterinarian involved with Outbreak 10 reported the death of 50 adult cattle and 8 calves. In Outbreak 2 the farmer informed that in a neighboring farm approximately 30 cattle died with the same disease. In Outbreak 4 cattle were introduced to the farm 9 months before the outbreak, from the municipality acrbunculo Dom Pedrito.
In Outbreak 6 cattle had been transported recently from another farm. In Outbreak 10 cattle were born on the farm and the only transportation of cattle was between this farm and a neighboring farm belonging to the same farmer. Cabrunculo Outbreaks 1 and 5 cattle were vaccinated annually against anthrax, but Outbreak 1 started during annual vaccination. In Outbreak 2 only part of the herd had been vaccinated, and only one animal from the non-vaccinated cattle died.
In Outbreaks 3, 4 and 6 there was no information about vaccination. In Outbreaks 7, 8 and 10 cattle were not vaccinated against anthrax. In Outbreak 9 cattle had been vaccinated days before the start of the outbreak. In Outbreak 7 the farmer reported that the disease was occurring since some months ago, with sporadic deaths, and that it affected also 15 sheep out of 1, and 4 horses out of On this farm, the owner also mentioned that the disease occurred more than 30 yematico ago, and after many years of vaccination this practice was abandoned.
In Outbreaks 1 and 10 the first cafbunculo that died had clinical signs of tick fever and specimens sent to the laboratory were positive for Babesia bovis. Later, anthrax was diagnosed in cattle found dead without the observation of clinical signs. In Outbreak 4 cattle were vaccinated against tick fever days before; anthrax was diagnosed in cattle with acute signs; they did xarbunculo respond to tetracycline treatment.
Carbúnculo hemático em bovinos no sul do Brasil: 1978-2006
Outbreak 10 occurred in a paddock where a large pond was almost dry and was the only area of the paddock with green pasture; in consequence the animals stayed there for long periods.
In the other outbreaks the hematicl were found dead, suggesting that the disease was peracute. Cattle found dead had dark tarry blood, which did not clot, from the natural orifices, and assumed the typical “sawhorse” posture.
In one case of carbuncuol acute form the farmer was bringing the affected live animal to the Diagnostic Laboratory, but the animal was dead on arrival at about Because Bacillus anthracis -like bacteria were observed in the polychromatic methylene blue stain of blood smears Fig.
Necropsies were only performed in cases of the acute form of the disease in which there was not a suspicion of anthrax, and in cases in which a previous diagnosis of tick fever was made. In those cases, gross lesions were of severe diffuse hemorrhages of the subcutaneous tissues and serous membranes. The spleen was softened and enlarged with gelatinous liquid aspect. The liver was moderately enlarged, with a yellowish or dark color. Blood smears showed large Gram-positive rods, isolated or carbubculo chains, similar to B.
In crbunculo polychromic methylene blue stained slides a metachromatic typical capsule was observed Fig. Guinea pigs or mice inoculated with material from the specimens sent by the practitioners or with the bacteria cultured hematicp blood agar died hours after inoculation, presenting edema and splenomegaly at necropsy. The number of anthrax outbreaks from to represents 0. Nevertheless, the endemic occurrence in the southern and southeastern region of Rio Grande do Sul suggests that cattle in these regions should be vaccinated annually.
The lack of hematici may have been responsible for the occurrence of primary cases of the disease after exposure to a primary source, such as soil from an old anthrax grave. Such a source could result in wide dissemination of the agent in the environment. Previous reports of the disease in the region suggest that annual vaccination of cattle was hematioc reason for the low frequency of anthrax Schild et al.
This situation appeared to be confirmed regarding Outbreak 7 where the farmer mentioned that the disease occurred more than 30 years ago, and after many years of vaccination this practice was abandoned. The three outbreaks during represent apparently an increase in the number of occurrence. The carbuncilo of routine vaccination could be the reason for the increase in the number of outbreaks in this period.
Carbúnculo hemático by Lorena Freire on Prezi
On the other hand an increase in the number of outbreaks was reported also from Argentina and Uruguay in the last 3 years, between and Rojas et al. Outbreaks of anthrax are frequent in tropical and subtropical countries with high annual rainfalls. Observing the climate data Table 2it can be suggested that dry conditions can be cagbunculo with most outbreaks.
In an outbreak in Canada, grazing at short distance from the soil during forage shortage was suggested as a probable source of infection for cattle Parkinson et al. This explanation seems questionable in the outbreaks reported in Rio Grande do Sul, because sheep which are numerous in the southern and southeastern region of the state and which always graze near the carbuncklo were not affected.
In this area hejatico are about 2, cattle and 1, sheep. Despite the large population of sheep in the region, anthrax was not diagnosed in this species during the period, and only one farmer mentioned the death of some of them. The reason for this difference in the occurrence carbuncuoo the disease between sheep and cattle is unknown. The region where the disease occurs is characterized by low and plain lands, subject to flooding and used to cultivate rice, soybean or other grains, ccarbunculo for animal grazing, alternatively.
Periodical plowing and frequent floods could be responsible for the presence of spores in areas where the disease occurred before. The use of previously plowed areas for animal grazing after harvest with the appearance of carbunchlo, which were previ-ously underground, has been suggested as an explanation of the occurrence of the disease Parkinson et al.
In Outbreak 10 the occurrence of the disease was probably associated with the concentration of animals grazing on an almost dry pond area, which was the only part of the paddock with green pasture.
It is suggested that in flooded areas the spores of Bacillus anthracis float and disperse, and later, under dry conditions, they concentrate carbunculi outbreaks Turner et al. Most outbreaks affected non-vaccinated animals hematido different ages suggesting that routine vaccination is very important in prevention of the disease.
In Outbreak 9, cattle started to die days after vaccination. Probably in this outbreak the animals were incubating the disease at the time of vaccination. In outbreaks of anthrax it has been observed that mortality decreases markedly nearly 8 days after vaccination Forshaw et al.